Heart, Lung and Circulation
Original Article| Volume 22, ISSUE 4, P291-296, April 2013

Effect of Anger on Endothelial-derived Vasoactive Factors in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

Published:December 26, 2012DOI:


      We tested whether anger affects the balance between endothelium-derived vasodilators and vasoconstrictors in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs).


      Five endothelium-produced vasoactive factors (nitric oxide, prostacyclin, urotensin, endothelin and thromboxane B2) were measured in an established SHR behavioural model of anger, in “non-angry” SHR rats, and in control Wistar–Kyoto rats.


      All angry SHR rats showed the typical angry behaviour and angry SHR rats had significantly higher blood pressure and heart rate than control rats. Angry rats had significantly lower levels of two vasodilators, nitric oxide and prostacyclin, and significantly higher levels of two vasoconstrictors, endothelin and thromboxane B2 than either non-angry SHR or control rats. Levels of a third vasoconstrictor, urotensin, were significantly lower in angry SHR than in non-angry SHR or control rats.


      Our results suggest that anger causes an imbalance of endothelium-produced vasodilating and vasoconstricting substances. This may have implications for the development and/or progression of hypertension.


      SHR (spontaneously hypertensive rat), WKY (Wistar Kyoto), NO (nitric oxide), 6-keto-PGF1α (6-keto-prostaglandin-F1α), TXB2 (thromboxane B2), ICC (intraclass correlation coefficient)


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