Heart, Lung and Circulation

Outcomes of Cardiac Arrest and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Patients With Left Ventricular Assist Device; an Insight From a National Inpatient Sample


      Outcomes of patients with implanted left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation experiencing a cardiac arrest (CA) are not well reported. We aimed at defining the in-hospital outcomes of patients with implanted LVAD experiencing a CA.


      The national inpatient sample (NIS) was queried using ICD9/ICD10 codes for patients older than 18 years with implanted LVAD and CA between 2010–2018. We excluded patients with orthotropic heart transplantation, biventricular assist device (BiVAD) implantation and do not resuscitate (DNR) status.


      A total of 93,153 hospitalisations between 2010 and 2018 with implanted LVAD were identified. Only 578 of these hospitalisations had experienced CA and of those, 173 (33%) hospitalisations underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The mean age of hospitalisations that experienced a CA was 60.61±14.85 for non-survivors and 56.23±17.33 for survivors (p=0.14). The in-hospital mortality was 60.8% in hospitalisations with CA and 74.33% in hospitalisations in whom CPR was performed. In an analysis comparing survivors with non-survivors, non-survivors had more diabetes mellitus (DM) (p=0.01), and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) (p=0.04). Age, female sex, peripheral vascular disease and history of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) were independently associated with increased mortality in our cohort. Also, ventricular tachycardia (VT) and CPR were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. During the study period, there was a significantly decreasing trend in performing CPR in LVAD hospitalisations with CA.


      In conclusion, age, female sex, peripheral vascular disease, history of CABG, VT and CPR were independently associated with in-hospital mortality in LVAD hospitalisations who experienced CA.


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