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Heart, Lung and Circulation

Mitral Valve Regurgitation After Lung Transplantation: Aetiology, Management and Outcome

Published:November 24, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hlc.2021.10.010

      Background

      Problematic mitral regurgitation (MR) may develop following lung transplantation (LTx). There is limited information on the management of MR in LTx patients, as such we sought to evaluate our centre’s experience.

      Methods

      From 2000 to 2019, 1,054 patients underwent LTx at our centre (896 bilateral, 158 single). We identified patients in whom significant MR developed at any point post-LTx. The aetiology of MR, management and outcome were retrospectively analysed.

      Results

      Eight (8) patients developed severe MR post-LTx, six following bilateral LTx and two following single LTx. Lung transplantation indications included interstitial lung disease (n=5), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n=2) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (n=1). Severe MR occurred intraoperatively (n=1), postoperative day 1 (n=1) with the remaining six cases between 80 and 263 days post-LTx. The aetiology was noted to be due to severe left ventricular dysfunction following unmasking of a chronically pulmonary hypertension-related under-preloaded left ventricle in one case, and in the remaining seven patients causes included myxomatous degeneration, ischaemic MR, and functional MR due to annular dilatation. In the patient with intraoperative severe MR, the MR became mild with veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) and in the remaining seven patients a variety of procedures were used, including mitral valve repair, valve replacement and transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair. All patients survived the mitral procedure. Two (2) deaths occurred at 12.9 years (stroke) and 5 years (cancer) from mitral valve surgery.

      Conclusions

      Development of significant mitral valve regurgitation is a rare but morbid complication after lung transplantation. This may represent the progressive natural history of pre-existing degenerative mitral valve disease and rarely, early after transplantation may be related to changes in ventricular geometry. Management of severe MR can follow the same management approach as in the non-transplant community, with the expectation of similarly good results.

      Keywords

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