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Heart, Lung and Circulation

Iron Deficiency in Heart Failure Patients and Benefits of Iron Replacement on Clinical Outcomes Including Comorbid Depression

Published:November 19, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hlc.2021.10.013

      Background

      Iron deficiency and depression are prevalent comorbidities in the setting of heart failure. Both conditions are associated with poorer patient outcomes including mortality, hospitalisation and quality of life. Iron replacement has come to the fore as a means to improve patient outcomes. This review aims to assess the current literature regarding the benefits of iron supplementation for iron deficient heart failure patients including potential improvements in depression.

      Methods and Results

      The databases of Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane library of systematic reviews, Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Web of Science and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for studies with relevant patient outcomes. A total of 18 studies were identified and included in the review. In essence, intravenous iron was found to be beneficial for New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification, quality of life measures, heart failure (HF) hospitalisation and aerobic capacity. Oral iron however was not beneficial. Research surrounding intravenous iron improving cardiovascular mortality, time to first hospitalisation and changes in depression status is lacking.

      Conclusions

      Further research is required to elucidate the advantages of intravenous iron for iron deficient heart failure patients on their depression, mortality and first admission to hospital. Consensus is required regarding which form of iron and the treatment regime that should be adopted for future clinical guidelines.

      Keywords

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