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Heart, Lung and Circulation

Inter-Ethnic Differences in Valvular Dysfunction, Aortopathy, and Progression of Disease of an Asian Bicuspid Aortic Valve Population

Published:November 26, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hlc.2021.10.023

      Background

      There are differences in bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) characteristics between Asian and European populations, but little is known about the inter-ethnic differences in bicuspid valve function and aortic root dimensions within the diverse Asian population.

      Methods

      From 1992–2017, 562 patients with index echocardiographic diagnosis of BAV in a tertiary health care institution in Singapore were analysed according to their ethnic groups: Chinese, Malay, Indian, and Eurasian. Study outcomes included BAV complications (infective endocarditis, aortic dissection) and clinical outcomes (aortic valve surgery, aortic root surgery, all-cause mortality). Total events were defined as composite outcome of all BAV complications and outcomes. Aortic dimensions and aortic dilatation rates were also studied.

      Results

      There were 379 (67.5%) Chinese, 79 (14.0%) Malay, 73 (13.0%) Indian, and 31 (5.5%) Eurasian patients. Type 1 BAV (58.5%) was the most prevalent BAV morphology, with moderate-to-severe aortic stenosis (AS) (36.8%) being the most common complication in the overall population. There was a higher prevalence of type 0 BAV in Chinese and Indian groups, and type 1 BAV with fusion of left-right coronary cusp in Eurasian and Malay groups (p=0.082). There was no difference in significant AS among groups. The highest prevalence of moderate-to-severe aortic regurgitation was observed amongst the Eurasian group, followed by Chinese, Indian, and Malay groups (p=0.033). The Chinese group had the largest mean indexed diameters of the aortic root. Multivariable linear regression demonstrated that only the Chinese had significantly larger indexed diameters in the aortic annulus, sinotubular junction (STJ), and ascending aorta (AA), relative to the Eurasian group, after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, and aortic regurgitation. On follow-up echocardiography, there was a trend towards the highest dilatation rates of sinus of Valsalva and STJ amongst Indian, and AA amongst Malay groups. Kaplan-Meier curves showed the highest incidence of total events amongst Chinese, followed by Malay, Indian and Eurasian (log-rank=9.691; p=0.021) patients.

      Conclusion

      There were differences in BAV morphology, valve dysfunction, aortopathy, and prognosis within the Asian population. Chinese patients had one of the highest prevalence of significant aortic regurgitation, with the largest aortic dimensions and worst outcomes compared with other Asian ethnicities. Closer surveillance is warranted in BAV patients within the Asian population.

      Central Illustration

      Keywords

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