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Heart, Lung and Circulation

Subjective and Objective Impact of Angiotensin Receptor–Neprilysin Inhibitors on Systemic Right Ventricle Patients

Published:March 09, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hlc.2022.02.005

      Introduction

      Patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) who have an anatomic right ventricle supporting the systemic circulation have increased mortality and morbidity from heart failure (HF). Angiotensin receptor–neprilysin inhibitors (ARNI) have emerged as a standard of therapy for adults with HF. However, the effects of this therapy have not been extensively studied in ACHD patients, especially those with systemic right ventricle (SRV).

      Hypothesis

      ARNIs are associated with subjective and objective improvement in SRV patients.

      Methods

      Eighteen (18) SRV patients were prescribed ARNI at our institution in the last 5 years. Data before and during treatment, including demographics, medical history, New York Heart Association functional class (NYHA FC), labs, cardiac computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), echocardiographic measurements, cardiopulmonary stress test (CPET), and hospitalisation for HF were obtained by review of the electronic medical record. Statistical analysis was performed using paired t and Wilcoxon rank sum tests.

      Results

      Eighteen (18) SRV patients (mean age 40 yrs, 72% male) were treated with ARNI (median duration 13 mo) in addition to other HF medications. All patients tolerated ARNI without symptomatic or asymptomatic hypotension or worsening kidney function. High ARNI dose (97/103 mg) was achieved in three (17%) patients, and moderate (49/51 mg) in three (17%). At baseline, nine patients were NYHA FC 2, seven FC 3, and two FC 4. Mean baseline cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and echocardiographic data were: oxygen uptake (VO2) 18 mL/kg/min, minute ventilation/carbon dioxide (VE/VCO2) 38, right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) 32%, fractional area change (FAC) 21%. Significant tricuspid regurgitation was present in 33% (28% moderate, and 5% severe) and mean tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) was 9.4 mm. With treatment, there was no statistically significant difference in blood pressure, labs, testing, or imaging. There was a statistically significant improvement in median NYHA FC (2 vs 2.5, p=0.005). When compared to an equal pre-ARNI median timeframe, there was a noted decrease in cardiac hospitalisation (4 vs 9) that did not reach statistical significance (p=0.313).

      Conclusion

      In adult patients with failing systemic right ventricle, ARNI is safe and well tolerated. Their use is associated with improvement in functional status. Prospective studies on a larger group of patients are warranted to better understand the causes of this improvement.

      Keywords

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