The clinical implications of finding immobile leaflet(s) at the time of bioprosthetic valve implantation but with acceptable prosthetic haemodynamics are uncertain. We sought to determine the characteristics of such patients and their impact on outcome.
Patients with immobile leaflet at the time of surgical bioprosthetic valve implantation were identified retrospectively by a systematic search of an institutional echocardiography database (2010–2020). Intraoperative echocardiograms were reviewed de-novo to confirm immobile leaflet(s) at the time of implantation. Cases were matched 1:2 to controls with normal bioprosthetic leaflets motion for age, sex, prosthesis position, prosthesis model, size, year of implantation, and pre-implantation left ventricular ejection fraction. Proportional hazards method was used to analyse the composite endpoint of stroke, valve thrombosis or re-intervention.
Immobile leaflet at the time of bioprosthetic valve implantation were found in 26 patients (median age 71 ys 39% males) following tricuspid (n=13), mitral (n=11) and aortic (n=2) valve replacements; 96% received porcine prostheses; prosthesis size was 27 mm or larger in 92%. Immobile leaflet were recorded on intraoperative reports in 16 (62%) cases. It resulted in elevated gradient or mild-moderate prosthetic regurgitation in three (12%), but none led to immediate corrective action intraoperatively. At median follow-up of 21 (4-50) months, presence of immobile leaflet was associated with composite clinical endpoint of stroke, valve thrombosis or re-intervention (hazard ratio 6.8, 95% CI 1.8–25.2, p<0.01) compared to controls.
Immobile leaflet immediately post-bioprosthetic valve implantation is frequently under-recognised intraoperatively and appears to be associated with early bioprosthetic dysfunction and worse clinical outcome.
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Published online: March 23, 2022
Accepted: February 16, 2022
Received in revised form: January 18, 2022
Received: October 23, 2021
© 2022 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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- Leaflet Immobility and Hypo-Attenuated Leaflet Thrombosis (HALT)–Under-Recognised Complications of Bioprosthetic Valve ReplacementsHeart, Lung and CirculationVol. 31Issue 8
- PreviewBioprosthetic leaflet immobility is under-recognised and is highlighted by an article by Naser et al.  in this edition of Heart, Lung and Circulation. The authors assert in their conclusions that “Immobile leaflet immediately post-bioprosthetic valve implantation is frequently under-recognised intra-operatively and appears to be associated with early bioprosthetic dysfunction and worse clinical outcome”. The valves assessed were predominantly porcine and while the number of cases is small, there was not much detail on the overall percent incidence of this issue.