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Heart, Lung and Circulation

Impact of Obesity on In-Hospital Outcomes in Veno-Arterial ECMO Patients

Published:August 01, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hlc.2022.03.014

      Background

      Obesity is known to impact outcomes of patients undergoing in-patient care in general. The association between veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) and obesity-related outcomes remains unclear. Therefore, we sought to investigate weight-associated differences of patients treated with VA ECMO.

      Method

      A retrospective study was performed for patients who required veno-arterial (VA) ECMO support at our tertiary ECMO centre between 1 March 2006 and 28 February 2017. Patients were categorised according to Body-Mass-Index (BMI) associated values in six groups (underweight, normal range, overweight, obese class I-III). Further, patients were divided into non-obese (18.5-29-9 kg/m2) and obese (≥30 kg/m2) groups and analysed concerning baseline, ECMO-related, and general outcome parameters.

      Results

      A total of 244 patients required VA ECMO support during the study period. Subgroup-analysis of BMI-category associated impact on in-hospital mortality showed the highest incidence of mortality in obese class II patients (93%) with a significant difference between overweighted patients. Non-obesity was present in 179, whereas 59 patients suffered obesity. Obese patients were significantly older (p=0.022) and suffered significantly more diabetes (21% non-obese vs 48% obese; p<0.001). Indication for support, laboratory parameters prior to ECMO, and ECMO-related outcomes did not differ between the groups. Obese patients showed a trend towards higher in-hospital mortality (70% non-obese vs 81% obese; p=0.085).

      Conclusions

      Obesity is associated with comparable outcomes to non-obese patients, showing a tendency of higher mortality. Obese class II patients presented the highest risk of death compared to all BMI categories.

      Keywords

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