Heart, Lung and Circulation

Association of Increased Pulse Wave Velocity With Long-Term Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Preserved Ankle-Brachial Index After Acute Myocardial Infarction


      Low ankle-brachial index (ABI) is an established risk factor for long-term cardiovascular outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) may also be a risk factor. However, there is a significant overlap between low ABI and high ba-PWV. The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine whether increased ba-PWV was associated with long-term clinical outcomes in AMI patients with normal ABI.


      We included 932 AMI patients with normal ABI and divided them into the high PWV group (≥1,400 cm/s; n=646) and the low PWV group (<1400 cm/s; n=286) according to the ba-PWV values measured during the AMI hospitalisation. The primary endpoint was the major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) defined as the composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and hospitalisation for heart failure.


      During the median follow-up duration of 541 days (Q1: 215 days–Q3: 1,022 days), a total of 154 MACE were observed. The Kaplan-Meier curves showed that MACE was more frequently observed in the high PWV group than in the low PWV group (p<0.001). The multivariate Cox hazard analysis revealed that high ba-PWV was significantly associated with MACE (hazard ratio [HR] 1.587; 95% CI 1.002–2.513; p=0.049) after controlling multiple confounding factors.


      High ba-PWV was significantly associated with long-term adverse events in AMI patients with normal ABI. Our results suggest the usefulness of PWV as a prognostic marker in AMI with normal ABI.


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