Heart, Lung and Circulation

Risk Factors of Haematoma Formation Following Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Procedures

Published:August 28, 2022DOI:


      A single-centre cohort of 2,100 adults who consecutively underwent cardiac implantable electronic device procedures were retrospectively analysed to identify and quantify risk factors of perioperative pocket haematoma formation.


      Dual antiplatelet therapy was significantly associated with increased odds of haematoma formation (OR 11.7 for aspirin and clopidogrel, OR 11.8 for aspirin and ticagrelor and OR 104 for aspirin and prasugrel, p<0.05) on multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis. Aspirin monotherapy was also associated with increased bleeding risk (OR 3.02, p<0.01). Direct oral anticoagulants and warfarin were also each associated with increased odds of haematoma formation although to a lesser extent than dual anti platelet therapy (DAPT). Amongst oral anticoagulants, apixaban was associated with the lowest bleeding risk (OR 2.59, p=0.03) whilst dabigatran was associated with the highest (OR 3.81, p=0.04). There was a significant incremental reduction in bleeding risk by 8% per 10x103/μL increase in platelet count.


      DAPT was associated with increased odds of pocket haematoma formation following cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) procedure. This likelihood was higher than with oral anticoagulation therapy.
      Timely medication reconciliation of P2Y12 inhibitors according to guidelines is important to avoid post-procedural bleeding complications. Perioperative policies which account for the half-life of withheld anticoagulant agents may help reduce the haematoma risk.


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