Advertisement
Heart, Lung and Circulation

Why Me? The Rise of Patients Without Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors

      Patients lacking the traditional cardiovascular risk factors of hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus or a history of smoking have previously been described as SMuRFless (Standard Modifiable Risk Factor-less) and recognised to represent an increasing proportion of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and cardiac arrest with poor outcomes [
      • Vernon S.T.
      • Coffey S.
      • Bhindi R.
      • Hoo S.Y.S.
      • Nelson G.I.
      • Ward M.R.
      • et al.
      Increasing proportion of ST elevation myocardial infarction patients with coronary atherosclerosis poorly explained by standard modifiable risk factors.
      ,
      • Paratz E.
      • Zentner D.
      • Parsons S.
      • Morgan N.
      • Thompson T.
      • James P.
      • et al.
      Causes, circumstances and potential preventability of cardiac arrest in the young: insights from a state-wide clinical and forensic registry.
      ,
      • Lonnebakken M.T.
      The risk of no risk in STEMI.
      ,
      • Figtree G.A.
      • Redfors B.
      • Kozor R.
      • Vernon S.T.
      • Grieve S.M.
      • Mazhar J.
      • et al.
      Clinical outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation MI and no standard modifiable cardiovascular risk factors.
      ]. In this edition of Heart Lung and Circulation, Suzuki and Saito et al. [
      • Suzuki S.S.Y.
      • Yamashita D.
      • Matsumoto T.
      • Sato T.
      • Wakabayashi S.
      • Kitahara H.
      • et al.
      Clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with no standard modifiable risk factors in acute myocardial infarction.
      ] detail their insights into a population of over 1,000 patients enrolled in a Japanese percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) registry.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Heart, Lung and Circulation
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Vernon S.T.
        • Coffey S.
        • Bhindi R.
        • Hoo S.Y.S.
        • Nelson G.I.
        • Ward M.R.
        • et al.
        Increasing proportion of ST elevation myocardial infarction patients with coronary atherosclerosis poorly explained by standard modifiable risk factors.
        Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2017; 24: 1824-1830
        • Paratz E.
        • Zentner D.
        • Parsons S.
        • Morgan N.
        • Thompson T.
        • James P.
        • et al.
        Causes, circumstances and potential preventability of cardiac arrest in the young: insights from a state-wide clinical and forensic registry.
        Europace. 2022; (In press)
        • Lonnebakken M.T.
        The risk of no risk in STEMI.
        Lancet. 2021; 397: 1039-1040
        • Figtree G.A.
        • Redfors B.
        • Kozor R.
        • Vernon S.T.
        • Grieve S.M.
        • Mazhar J.
        • et al.
        Clinical outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation MI and no standard modifiable cardiovascular risk factors.
        JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2022; 15: 1167-1175
        • Suzuki S.S.Y.
        • Yamashita D.
        • Matsumoto T.
        • Sato T.
        • Wakabayashi S.
        • Kitahara H.
        • et al.
        Clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with no standard modifiable risk factors in acute myocardial infarction.
        Heart Lung Circ. 2022; 31: 1228-1233
        • Feng J.L.
        • Nedkoff L.
        • Knuiman M.
        • Semsarian C.
        • Ingles J.
        • Briffa T.
        • et al.
        Temporal trends in sudden cardiac death from 1997 to 2010: a data linkage study.
        Heart Lung Circ. 2017; 26: 808-816
      1. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Trends in Cardiovascular Deaths. Bulletin 141. Cat. no: AUS 216. September 2017. pp1-24. ISBN: 978-1-76054-187-3, Canberra, Australia. (https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/heart-stroke-vascular-disease/trends-cardiovascular-deaths/summary)

        • Figtree G.A.
        • Vernon S.T.
        • Hadziosmanovic N.
        • Sundström J.
        • Alfredsson J.
        • Arnott C.
        • et al.
        Mortality in STEMI patients without standard modifiable risk factors: a sex-disaggregated analysis of SWEDEHEART registry data.
        Lancet. 2021; 397: 1085-1094
        • Paratz E.
        • Semsarian C.
        • La Gerche A.
        Mind the gap: knowledge deficits in evaluating young sudden cardiac death.
        Heart Rhythm. 2020; 17: 2208-2214
        • Priori S.G.
        • Blomstrom-Lundqvist C.
        • Mazzanti A.
        • Blom N.
        • Borggrefe M.
        • Camm J.
        • et al.
        2015 ESC Guidelines for the management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death: the Task Force for the management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Endorsed by: Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC).
        Eur Heart J. 2015; 36: 2793-2867

      Linked Article