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Heart, Lung and Circulation

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Cardiac Amyloidosis in Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Published:September 19, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hlc.2022.08.002

      Aims

      Heart failure (HF) is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Heart failure is also one of the most common presentations of cardiac amyloidosis (CA). Contemporary epidemiological data of CA in HF patients is lacking. Hence, this systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to determine the prevalence of amyloidosis in HF patients, and to clarify the risk factors of concomitant CA and HF.

      Methods

      A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. Studies were retrieved from Medline, EMBASE, Scopus and Cochrane library. The search was not restricted in time, type or language of publication. The prevalence of CA in HF grouped according to diagnostic techniques and risk factors of CA with HF was analysed.

      Results

      Eleven (11) studies were included, involving 3,303 patients. The pooled prevalence of CA in HF was 13.7%. The overall prevalence of CA in HF with preserved ejection fraction was 15.1%, and that of HF with reduced ejection fraction was 11.3%. The main factors associated with the diagnosis of CA in HF included older age, males, raised NT pro-BNP, increased interventricular septal thickness in diastole, apical sparing, and reduced left ventricular systolic function.

      Conclusion

      A high index of clinical suspicion is required to identify HF patients with CA. Supportive investigations may be helpful when clinically correlated. A considerable proportion of HF patients have CA and certain risk factors may be helpful in increasing suspicion of CA in HF.

      Keywords

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