Heart, Lung and Circulation

Influence of Iron Deficiency on Clinical and Haemodynamic Parameters in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Cohorts

Published:November 16, 2022DOI:


      Iron deficiency (Fedef) has been shown to be common in patients with group 1 or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Several studies have shown a negative impact of Fedef on clinical and haemodynamic parameters of the disease, but data from individual studies have not been strong enough to lead to incorporation of the finding of Fedef into prognostic or therapeutic algorithms. The goal of this meta-analysis was to combine data from available studies to better define any associations between Fedef and established variables of prognostic importance in PAH.


      A literature search identified nine studies with extractable data relevant to the study questions. The impact of Fedef upon the following parameters was evaluated: 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), WHO-functional class, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels, echocardiography, and findings from right heart catheterisation (RHC). Pooled results were reported as mean difference or risk difference with 95% confidence intervals utilising a random effects modeling approach.


      Fedef in the PAH population was common (47% of cases) and was associated with cardiovascular dysfunction (lower tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion [TAPSE], elevated NT-proBNP, and lower mixed venous oxygen saturation) and with reduction in functional capacity (lower 6MWD and higher functional class).


      This meta-analysis strengthens the relationships between Fedef and several markers of poor outcome in PAH. Fedef in patients with PAH warrants further scrutiny and merits consideration as a cause of clinical deterioration. Even though causation and longitudinal relationships between Fedef and PAH could not be identified, effect of Fedef on factors that affect disease prognosis is noteworthy and worthy of more focussed studies.


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