Studies have reported increasing triple valve surgery (TVS, defined as concomitant aortic, mitral and tricuspid valves surgery) incidence and improved postoperative survival. The epidemiology and outcome of TVS is not known in Australia.
From the Admission-Patient-Data-Collection registry, all New South Wales residents who underwent cardiac valve surgery between 1 July 2001 and 31 December 2018 were identified, with cause-specific mortality tracked from the death registry.
Triple valve surgery comprised 1.2% (347/28,667 cases) of all valvular surgeries. Volumes rose from eight cases-per-annum in 2002 to a peak of 37 in 2012, and between 23 and 30 cases-per-annum since. Mean (±SD) age of study cohort (n=340 persons) was 68.2±15.2 years (50% male); 20.3% had concomitant coronary-artery-bypass-surgery (males vs females: 29.4% vs 11.2%, p<0.001). Main surgery on aortic and mitral valves was replacement (95.9% and 70.6% respectively). Tricuspid valve annuloplasty was performed in 90.6% of patients. Cumulative in-hospital, 180-day, and total mortality (mean follow-up=4.9±4.0 yrs) was 7.4%, 11.8% and 42.6%, respectively. Heart failure (24.0% in-hospital, 22.5% post-discharge) and sepsis (24.0% in-hospital, 20.0% post-discharge) were the main cause-specific deaths. There was no in-hospital stroke-related death. Age (median >72 yrs; hazard ratio [HR]=1.95, 95%CI=1.37–2.79), malignancy (HR=6.35, 95%CI=2.21–18.26), heart failure (HR=1.79, 95%CI=1.25–2.57) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) (HR=2.21, 95%CI=1.39–3.51) (all p<0.005) were independent predictors during intermediate-term follow-up.
Triple valve surgery remains rare in Australia and is associated with high mortality. Multi-centred collaboration and access to comprehensive clinical data are required to identify the drivers of poor outcome.
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Published online: November 05, 2022
Accepted: September 30, 2022
Received in revised form: September 9, 2022
Received: October 20, 2021
© 2022 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.